Nature: Exaggeration of Creation - Rejection of Providence

Parmenides, a Greek philosopher in the 5th century BC, argued that Being is all, and since being cannot change into non-Being (because that would contradict reason), Being is One, and Being is unchangeable. Parmenides' arguments seem strange though logically consistent.

(See further discussion of this in the dilogic on Physics: Being and Becoming.)

The mistake of Parmenides was to identify Being with the world itself, instead of its transcendent Creator. This leads to a direct contradiction with our ordinary experience, which shows appearances of change in everything. Parmenides' doctrine, as a description of nature, is stillborn. It does not allow for any investigation of nature, since a permanent Being can have no contingency.

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